CONTOH LASSON PLAN

LESSON PLAN

By:

NI PUTU RATNADI

09.8.3.51.31.2.5.3286.

 

ENGLIS EDUCATION DEPARTMENT

FACULTY OF TEACHER TRAINING AND EDUCATION

     MAHASARASWATI DENPASAR UNIVERSITY

2012

 

Lesson Plan

School                         : SD N 1 GEGELANG

Subject                         : English

Grade/Semester                        : 6/II

Skill                             : Speaking

Time Allotment            : 1 x 35

Standard Competence  : Understanding the meaning in a very simple functional text to interact with the closets environment.

  1. A.        Basic Competence           : Responding the meaning in a simple functional text accurately, fluently and acceptable to interact with the closets environment which involves job and profession.
  2. B.        Indicator            
  • Describing kinds of job and profession
  1. C.        Learning Objective
  • Given a chance to understanding the kinds of job and profession, the students will be able to describe kinds of job and profession based on the theory given ( 75% ).
  1. D.        Learning material

Kinds of job

–          Tukang Kebun : Gardener

–          Tukang Kayu : Carpenter

–          Tukang post : Postman

–          Tukang cukur : Barber

–          Pemadam kebakaran : Fireman

–          Tukang ketik : Typist

–          Tukang bangunan : Builder

–          Petani : Farmer

–          Nelayan : Fisherman

–          Montir : Mechanic

–          Pedagang : Seller

–          Pelukis : Painter

Kinds of Profession

–          Guru : Teacher

–          Polisi : Police

–          Dokter : Doctor

–          Perawat : Nurse

–          Bidan : Midwife

–          Reporter : Journalist

–          Ilmuan : Scientist

–          Pilot    : Pilot

–          Dokter gigi : Dentist

–          Dokter kulit : Dermatologist

  1. E.        Learning technique

Three – phases technique

  1. F.         Learning Activities

Pre – Activity ( 10 minutes )

–          Greeting the students

–          Checking the student’s attendant list

–          Elaborating the learning objective that want to be achieved

–          Giving the general description about the material which will be discussed

Whilst Activity ( 20 minutes )

–          Asking the student what they know about job and expression

–          Explaining the material about job and expression

–          Ask the students to answer the test given

Post – Activity ( 5 minutes )

–          Asking their difficulties in studying the expression

–          Concluding the learning material

–          Giving homework to the students

Tabel Spesifikasi Lembar Penilaian

Indikator Tujuan Pembelajaran LP dan Butir Kunci Jawaban
  1. Describing kinds of job and profession
  2. Given a chance to understanding the kinds of job and profession, the students will be able to describe kinds of job and profession based on the theory given ( 75% ).
LP 1

 

 

 

 

Kunci

LP 1

 

 

 

Nama  __________________________ (_______________) Tgl ____________

 

  1. 1.      Please match the following question bellow

 

  1. The Person who operates a plane is …                                                       a.  gardener
  2. The person who waters flower and plants the tree is a…                            b.  waiter
  3. The person who drives the car is …                                                                       c . pilot
  4. The person who teaches the student is…                                                    d. driver
  5. The person who delivers the letter is…                                                      e. chef
  6. The person who works in the rice field is…                                                          f. doctor
  7. The person who works  in the hospital is…                                                           g. journalist
  8. The person who writes of an information is…                                           h. farmer
  9. The person who cooks foods is…                                                             i.  postman
  10. The person who serves the guess in the restaurant is..                                           j.  teacher

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

KUNCI LEMBAR PENILAIAN

  1. 1.      Answers key

1. c

2. a

3. d

4.  j

5. i

6. h

7. f

8. g

9. e

10. b

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PARAGRAPH

In many languages, the fundamental unit of composition is the paragraph.  A paragraph consists of several sentences that are grouped together.  This group of sentences together discuss one main subject.   In U.S. formal academic English, paragraphs have three principal parts.  These three parts are the topic sentence, body sentences, and the concluding sentence.  We will also talk briefly about details in paragraphs.
 

The Topic Sentence

A topic sentence usually comes at the beginning of a paragraph; that is, it is usually the first sentence in a formal academic paragraph.  (Sometimes this is not true, but as you practice writing with this online lesson site, please keep to this rule unless you are instructed otherwise.)  Not only is a topic sentence the first sentence of a paragraph, but, more importantly, it is the most general sentence in a paragraph.  What does “most general” mean?  It means that there are not many details in the sentence, but that the sentence introduces an overall idea that you want to discuss later in the paragraph. 

For example, suppose that you want to write a paragraph about the natural landmarks of your hometown.   The first part of your paragraph might look like this:
 
 

       My hometown is famous for several amazing natural features.  First, it is noted for the Wheaton River, which is very wide and beautiful. Also, on the other side of the town is Wheaton Hill, which is unusual because it is very steep.

(Notice how the first sentence begins with “My hometown…” a few spaces to the right of the paragraph edge.  This is an indentation.  All paragraphs in English MUST begin with an indentation.)

Note how the first sentence, My hometown, Wheaton, is famous for several amazing geographical features,is the most general statement. This sentence is different from the two sentences that follow it, since the second and third sentences mention specific details about the town’s geography, and are not general statements.

Here are some examples of sentences that cannot be used as topic sentences. Can you figure out why they are inappropriate? 
 

  1. My hometown is famous because it is located by Wheaton River, which is very wide, and because it is built near an unusually steep hill called Wheaton Hill.
  1. There are two reasons why some people like to buy cars with automatic transmission and two reasons why others like cars with manual transmission.
  1. Clouds are white.

The problem with sentence #1 is that it contains too many details. Topic sentences are general, and details should appear later in the paragraph. A better topic sentence would be like the one mentioned above, My hometown is famous for several amazing geographical features.

Sentence #2 is not appropriate as a topic sentence because it mentions two topics, not just one. Paragraphs are usually about one main thing and so their topic sentences should also be about only one main thing.

The problem with sentence #3 is that it is toogeneral. It is also very boring! Would you like to read a paragraph with this topic sentence? Most people would not.

We can rewrite sentences #2 and #3 in the following ways to make it better:
 

  • There are two reasons why some people like to buy cars with automatic transmission. 

     
     

    OR (in a different paragraph):

     

    • There are two reasons why some people like cars with manual transmission.
    • The shapes of clouds are determined by various factors.

    Supporting Sentences

    Consider again the above-mentioned, short paragraph:
     

           My hometown, Wheaton, is famous for several amazing natural features.  First, it is noted for the Wheaton River, which is very wide and beautiful. Also, on the other side of the town is Wheaton Hill, which is unusual because it is very steep.

    (Again, note how this paragraph is indented on the first line, about five or seven spaces in from the left-hand edge of the paragraph. Always remember to indent your paragraphs!)

    When a reader reads a topic sentence, such as My hometown, Wheaton, is famous for several amazing natural features,a question should usually appear in the reader’s mind.  In this case, the question should be like, “What are the natural features that make Wheaton famous?”   The reader should then expect that the rest of the paragraph will give an answer to this question. 

    Now look at the sentences after the topic sentence.  We can see that the second sentence in the paragraph,  First, it is noted for the Wheaton River, which is very wide and beautiful,indeed gives an answer to this question. That is, the second sentence gives some explanation for the fact that Wheaton is a famous town. Similarly, we can see that the third sentence also gives some explanation for the fact that Wheaton is famous by giving another example of an “amazing natural feature,” in this case, Wheaton Hill.

    The second and third sentences are called supporting sentences.  They are called “supporting” because they “support,” or explain, the idea expressed in the topic sentence.  Of course, paragraphs in English often have more than two supporting ideas.   The paragraph above is actually a very short paragraph.  At minimum, you should have at least five to seven sentences in your paragraph.  Here we can see our paragraph about Wheaton with a few more supporting sentences in bold font:
     
     

           My hometown is famous for several amazing natural features.  First, it is noted for the Wheaton River, which is very wide and beautiful. Also, on the other side of the town is Wheaton Hill, which is unusual because it is very steep. The third amazing feature is the Big Old Tree. This tree stands two hundred feet tall and is probably about six hundred years old.

    In this lesson, we will talk about supporting sentences again in the section, “Details in Paragraphs,” below.
     

    The Concluding Sentence

    In formal paragraphs you will sometimes see a sentence at the end of the paragraph which summarizes the information that has been presented.  This is the concluding sentence.  You can think of a concluding sentence as a sort of topic sentence in reverse.

    You can understand concluding sentences with this example.  Consider a hamburger that you can buy at a fast-food restaurant.*  A hamburger has a top bun (a kind of bread), meat, cheese, lettuce, and other elements in the middle of the hamburger, and a bottom bun. Note how the top bun and the bottom bun are very similar.  The top bun, in a way, is like a topic sentence, and the bottom bun is like the concluding sentence.  Both buns “hold” the meat, onions, and so on.  Similarly, the topic sentence and concluding sentence “hold” the supporting sentences in the paragraph.  Let’s see how a concluding sentence (in bold font) might look in our sample paragraph about Wheaton:
     

           My hometown is famous for several amazing natural features.  First, it is noted for the Wheaton River, which is very wide and beautiful. Also, on the other side of the town is Wheaton Hill, which is unusual because it is very steep. The third amazing feature is the Big Old Tree. This tree stands two hundred feet tall and is probably about six hundred years old. These three landmarks are truly amazing and make my hometown a famous place.

    Notice how the concluding sentence, These three landmarks are truly amazing and make my hometown a famous place,summarizes the information in the paragraph.  Notice also how the concluding sentence is similar to, but not exactly the same as, the topic sentence. 

    Not all academic paragraphs contain concluding sentences, especially if the paragraph is very short.  However, if your paragraph is very long, it is a good idea to use a concluding sentence.
     

    Details in Paragraphs

    The short paragraph in this lesson is a fairly complete paragraph, but it lacks details.  Whenever possible, you should include enough details in your paragraphs to help your reader understand exactly what you are writing about.  In the paragraph about Wheaton, three natural landmarks are mentioned, but we do not know very much about them.  For example, we could add a sentence or two about Wheaton river concerning HOW wide it is or WHY it is beautiful.  Consider this revision (and note the additional details in bold):
     
     

           My hometown is famous for several amazing natural features.  First, it is noted for the Wheaton River, which is very wide and beautiful. On either side of this river, which is 175 feet wide, are many willow trees which have long branches that can move gracefully in the wind.  In autumn the leaves of these trees fall and cover the riverbanks like golden snow.  Also, on the other side of the town is Wheaton Hill, which is unusual because it is very steep.  Even though it is steep, climbing this hill is not dangerous, because there are some firm rocks along the sides that can be used as stairs.  There are no trees around this hill, so it stands clearly against the sky and can be seen from many miles away.  The third amazing feature is the Big Old Tree. This tree stands two hundred feet tall and is probably about six hundred years old.  These three landmarks are truly amazing and make my hometown a famous place.

    If we wished, we could also add more details to the paragraph to describe the third natural feature of the area, the Big Old Tree.

    Why are details important?  Consider the example of the hamburger, mentioned above.*  If the hamburger buns are the topic and concluding sentences, then the meat, the cheese, the lettuce, and so on are the supporting details.  Without the food between the hamburger buns, your hamburger would not be very delicious!  Similarly, without supporting details, your paragraph would not be very interesting. 
     

    A Note on Formality.    In addition to having a particular kind of structure,  academic paragraphs (and multi-paragraph essays, which will be topic of another lesson) are different from “ordinary writing” (such as letter writing) in that certain kinds of expressions are not allowed.  For example, in formal essays, you should not use contractions such as don’t or aren’t.  Instead, you should write out the words in full, for example, do not and are not.

    Also, in formal essays you should avoid the first and second person.  That is, do not use the pronouns I or you.  The pronouns we and us are sometimes used in formal essays in some major fields, but in general you should not use these unless you are certain that they are customary in your field  and/or your professor allows them.  It is safer simply to use the third person.
     

    TOO INFORMAL
    (Do not use)
    ACCEPTABLE
    don’t do not
    doesn’t does not
    aren’t are not
    weren’t were not
    can’t cannot
    couldn’t could not
    won’t will not

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    TEACHING METHOD (SILENT WAY)

    THE SILENT WAY

    Background

    The Silent Way is a language teaching method created by Caleb Gattegno that makes extensive use of silence as a teaching technique. It is not usually considered a mainstream method in language education. It was first introduced in Gattegno’s book Teaching Foreign Languages in Schools: The Silent Way in 1963. Gattegno was skeptical of the mainstream language education of the time, and conceived of the method as a special case of his general theories of education. The method emphasizes the autonomy of the learner; the teacher’s role is to monitor the students’ efforts, and the students are encouraged to have an active role in learning the language. Pronunciation is seen as fundamental; beginning students start their study with pronunciation, and much time is spent practicing it each lesson. Evaluation is carried out by observation, and the teacher may never set a formal test. The teacher uses silence for multiple purposes in the Silent Way. It is used to focus students’ attention, to elicit student responses, and to encourage them to correct their own errors. Even though teachers are often silent, they are still active; they will commonly use techniques such as mouthing words and using hand gestures to help the students with their pronunciation. Teachers will also encourage students to help their peers.

    Theory and Characteristics

    As the name already suggests, the method is built upon the hypothesis that inside the classroom the teacher should be as silent as possible, whereas the students/learners should be encouraged to produce as much language as possible, participate actively in class and in this way become autonomous learners. Silence is regarded as the best instrument for learning in the classroom, because “in silence students concentrate on the task to be accomplished and the potential means for its accomplishment” (Richards & Rodgers 2001: 83). The techniques of the Silent Way “made it possible for the teacher to say less and less as the lessons advanced, while the pupils were saying more and more and using their own inner criteria developed in this approach” (Gattegno 1972: preamble). In general, there are three basic theories on which Gattegno’s work is founded:

    1. Learning is regarded as a “problem-solving, creative, discovering activity”(Richards & Rodgers 2001: 81), in which the learner rather acts and participates actively than just being passive and doing nothing but listening to the teacher. If the learner is involved directly, he automatically benefits from the so called “discovery learning”.

    2. The use of special physical objects such as colored wooden rods or color -coded wall charts facilitates learning. These physical objects “provide physical foci for student learning and also create memorable images to facilitate student recall” (Richards & Rodgers 2001: 81).

    3. Learning is facilitated by involving the learners and letting them solve problems on their own with the help of the provided materials

    TEACHER and LEARNER ROLES

    Teacher Roles

    The Silent Way is not a teacher- centred approach. While the teacher uses mainly gestures and facial expressions to address the learners, his/her main task is the teaching of the language by letting the students test out grammatical forms, etc. and getting out of their way, so that they can discover these things on their own.

    Learner Roles

    The learners are expected to participate in class actively. They should be willing to make mistakes, to test out the basic language elements via the usage of the materials provided and generally be highly motivated. As a learner, it is important not to get frustrated in case the Silent Way lesson sometimes may be a little tricky and the meaning of the materials is not always clear at first sight. Therefore, it is important to be able and willing to think in a rather abstract way so that the meaning of the provided material can be detected.

     

     

     

     

     

    ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES

    Advantage

    –          The use of the Silent Way enables a very high degree of interaction as well between the teacher and the students as between the students themselves and additionally raises the participation of the students in class.

    –          The self-esteem of the students will be increased and this will enhance learning.

    –          It embodies a new approach to education in general, a respect for the individual and an awareness of the individual’s extraordinary cognitive powers.

    Disadvantage

    –          The Silent Way is a very abstract way of learning a language, the learners have to engage themselves with the artificiality of the approach, which is extremely different from more commonly used methods of language learning.

    –           This method can be benefited by the teacher only in small groups of students. The teacher can gain ability in this method by trying. The teacher is expected to enrich the materials on his/her own.

    –          For some learners, one limitation is the approach to language basics which begins with seemingly irrelevant discussions about rods and which involves silence and concentration and games with the teacher about meaning. Students’ expectations and need for immediately relevant language learning may force teachers to abandon the approach (Celce-Murcia 1979).

     

     

    LESSON PLAN

    School                         :SD 3 MANGGIS

     

    Subject                                    :English

     

    Class/Semester            :IX/2

     

    Skill                             :Speaking

     

    Time Allotment           :1 x 40

     

    Teaching Method        :Silent Way Method

     

     

    Reason                        :

    I choose this method in teachig speaking because this metod is emphasize on speech.This method is teach  the  students to be an active person.Because this method student  are more active than the teacher.

    There are many techniques and prosedure are use to  elaborated this method such as,make groups ,flashcards,song and games.

    TEFL (AUDIO-VISUAL METHOD)

    AUDIO-LINGUAL AUDIO-VISUAL METHODMid 1960’s – three new technological aids came into general use in the classroom-language laboratory, portable tape-recorder and film-strip projector. All these were greeted with euphoria in all modern language departments. Extensive use of tapes and equipment was revolutionary for language teachers. Instead of buying sets of books to equip a class, teachers were demanding most expensive boxes of film-strips and sets of tapes. Blackout facilities and electric points had to be installed.

    Potential offered to language teaching by tape-recorder was enormous – now possible to bring native speaking voices into classroom. Editing and self-recording facilities now available. Tapes could be used with tape recorder or in language laboratory. Early audio-visual courses consisted of taped dialogues, accompanied by film -strips which were designed to act as visual cues to elicit responses in the foreign language.

    Most audio-lingual courses consisted of short dialogues and sets of recorded drills. Method was based on a behaviourist approach, which held that language is acquired by habit formation. Based on assumption that foreign language is basically a mechanical process and it is more effective if spoken form precedes written form. The stress was on oral proficiency and carefully- structured drill sequences (mimicry/memorisation) and the idea that quality and permanence of learning are in direct proportion to amount of practice carried out.

    But early enthusiasm for audio-visual materials and language laboratory soon cooled as teachers gradually recognised limitations of this approach.

    Disadvantages of Audio-Visual/Audio-Lingual Method

    1 Basic method of teaching is repetition, speech is standardised and pupils turn into parrots who can reproduce many things but never create anything new or spontaneous.Pupils became better and better at pattern practice but were unable to use the patterns fluently in natural speech situations.

    2 Mechanical drills of early Audio-Visual approach criticised as being not only boring and mindless but also counter-productive, if used beyond initial introduction to new structure.

    3 Audio-Visual materials were open to same sort of misuse. Tendency to regard audio-visual materials as a teaching method in themselves, not as a teaching aid.

    4 Soon became clear to teachers that audio-visual approach could only assist in presentation of new materials. More subtle classroom skills were needed for pupils to assimilate material and use it creatively. This final vital phase was often omitted by teachers.

    New technology caught publishers and text-book writers unprepared – very few commercial materials were available in the early stages. Those that did exist stressed oral and aural skills and didn’t develop reading and writing skills.

    6 New materials necessitated extensive use of equipment with all associated problems of black-out, extension leads, carrying tape-recorders from classroom to classroom. Some schools set up Specialist- Language rooms, but teachers still had to set up projectors and find places on tape. Equipment could break down, projector lamps explode, tapes tangle – not sophisticated equipment of today. Hardware involved extra time, worry and problems, and, for these reasons alone, its use gradually faded away.

    7 Series of classroom studies threw doubt on claims made for language laboratory. Showed that this costly equipment did not improve performance of 11+ beginners, when compared with same materials used on single tape-recorder in classroom.

    But Audio-Lingual/(Visual approach did mark start of the technological age in language teaching and it did introduce important new elements Emphasised need for visual presentation and possibility of eliciting language from visual cues. It placed far more weight on use of foreign language in classroom by both teacher and pupil, and the language used was of far greater practicality.More gifted and energetic teachers used new courses with great success – moved forward to open-ended question and answer work and extended dialogue, designed own supplementary materials, exercises and worksheets.

    However, generally teachers were disillusioned and dissatisfied with the new methods – at a time when whole secondary education was being reorganised with advent of comprehensive schools.

    Examples of Drill Patterns

    Audio – Lingual Drill Meaningful Drill
    Audio-Visual Drill  Open-Ended Drill

    Audio – Lingual Drill

     
    tape stimulus student response
    Je vais à la boucherie
    (gendarmerie
    Je vais à la gendarmerie
    Je vais à la gendarmerie
    (cinéma)
    Je vais au cinéma
    Je vais au cinéma
    (discothèque)
    Je vais à la discothèque
    Je vais à la discothèque
    (théâtre)
    Je vais au théâtre
    Je vais au théâtre
    (supermarché)
    Je vais au supermarché

    Audio-Visual Drill (as in 1966 textbook)

    Das hat er schon einmal gefragt
    (ich) 
    Das habe ich schon einmal gefragt
    (essen)
    Das habe ich schon einmal gegessen
    (ihr)
    Das habt ihr schon einmal gegessen
    (sehen)
    Das habt ihr schon einmal gesehen
    (du)
     Das hast du schon einmal gesehen
    etc
     

     

    Meaningful Drills

     
    tape stimulus student response
    Il faut acheter du pain 
    (où vas-tu?)

    Je vais à la boulangerie
    Il faut acheter des gâteaux (où vas-tu?)
    Je vais à la pâtisserie
    Il faut jouer au football 
    (où vas-tu?)

    Je vais au terrain de sports
     Il faut parler à la police 
    (où vas-tu?)

    Je vais à la gendarmerie
    Il faut acheter des provisions 
    (où vas-tu?))

    Je vais au supermarché
    etc··  

    Open-Ended Drill

    Teacher:
    Imaginez un peu! Il faut acheter quelque chose à manger.Où vas-tu ?
    Pupil 1:
    Je vais à la boulangerie.
    Teacher: 
    A la boulangerie? Oui, et toi, Jacques?
    Pupil 2:
    Moi, je vais à la pâtisserie.
    Teacher:
    Ha! Tu aimes les gâteaux, non? Et toi?
    Pupil 3:
    Je vais au supermarché
    Teacher:
    Au supermarché! Bonne idée! Et toi, Marie?
    Pupil 4:
    Je vais au café
    Teacher: 
    Encore une bonne idée. Et toi, Bernard?
     
    Etc·..

    simple past tense

    Simple Past

    FORM

    [VERB+ed] or irregular verbs

    Examples:

    • You called Debbie.
    • Did you call Debbie?
    • You did not call Debbie.

    Complete List of Simple Past Forms

    USE 1 Completed Action in the Past

    Use the Simple Past to express the idea that an action started and finished at a specific time in the past. Sometimes, the speaker may not actually mention the specific time, but they do have one specific time in mind.

    Examples:

    • I saw a movie yesterday.
    • I didn’t see a play yesterday.
    • Last year, I traveled to Japan.
    • Last year, I didn’t travel to Korea.
    • Did you have dinner last night?
    • She washed her car.
    • He didn’t wash his car.

    USE 2 A Series of Completed Actions

    We use the Simple Past to list a series of completed actions in the past. These actions happen 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, and so on.

    Examples:

    • I finished work, walked to the beach, and found a nice place to swim.
    • He arrived from the airport at 8:00, checked into the hotel at 9:00, and met the others at 10:00.
    • Did you add flour, pour in the milk, and then add the eggs?

    USE 3 Duration in Past

    The Simple Past can be used with a duration which starts and stops in the past. A duration is a longer action often indicated by expressions such as: for two years, for five minutes, all day, all year, etc.

    Examples:

    • I lived in Brazil for two years.
    • Shauna studied Japanese for five years.
    • They sat at the beach all day.
    • They did not stay at the party the entire time.
    • We talked on the phone for thirty minutes.
    • A: How long did you wait for them?
      B: We waited for one hour.

    USE 4 Habits in the Past

    The Simple Past can also be used to describe a habit which stopped in the past. It can have the same meaning as “used to.” To make it clear that we are talking about a habit, we often add expressions such as: always, often, usually, never, when I was a child, when I was younger, etc.

    Examples:

    • I studied French when I was a child.
    • He played the violin.
    • He didn’t play the piano.
    • Did you play a musical instrument when you were a kid?
    • She worked at the movie theater after school.
    • They never went to school, they always skipped class.

    USE 5 Past Facts or Generalizations

    The Simple Past can also be used to describe past facts or generalizations which are no longer true. As in USE 4 above, this use of the Simple Past is quite similar to the expression “used to.”

    Examples:

    • She was shy as a child, but now she is very outgoing.
    • He didn’t like tomatoes before.
    • Did you live in Texas when you were a kid?
    • People paid much more to make cell phone calls in the past.

    IMPORTANT When-Clauses Happen First

    Clauses are groups of words which have meaning but are often not complete sentences. Some clauses begin with the word “when” such as “when I dropped my pen…” or “when class began…” These clauses are called when-clauses, and they are very important. The examples below contain when-clauses.

    Examples:

    • When I paid her one dollar, she answered my question.
    • She answered my question when I paid her one dollar.

    When-clauses are important because they always happen first when both clauses are in the Simple Past. Both of the examples above mean the same thing: first, I paid her one dollar, and then, she answered my question. It is not important whether “when I paid her one dollar” is at the beginning of the sentence or at the end of the sentence. However, the example below has a different meaning. First, she answered my question, and then, I paid her one dollar.

    Example:

    • I paid her one dollar when she answered my question.

    ADVERB PLACEMENT

    The examples below show the placement for grammar adverbs such as: always, only, never, ever, still, just, etc.

    Examples:

    • You just called Debbie.
    • Did you just call Debbie?

    ACTIVE / PASSIVE

    Examples:

    • Tom repaired the car. Active
    • The car was repaired by Tom. Passive

    Past Prefect tense

    Past Perfect

     

    FORM

    [had + past participle]

    Examples:

    • You had studied English before you moved to New York.
    • Had you studied English before you moved to New York?
    • You had not studied English before you moved to New York.

    Complete List of Past Perfect Forms

    USE 1 Completed Action Before Something in the Past

    The Past Perfect expresses the idea that something occurred before another action in the past. It can also show that something happened before a specific time in the past.

    Examples:

    • I had never seen such a beautiful beach before I went to Kauai.
    • I did not have any money because I had lost my wallet.
    • Tony knew Istanbul so well because he had visited the city several times.
    • Had Susan ever studied Thai before she moved to Thailand?
    • She only understood the movie because she had read the book.
    • Kristine had never been to an opera before last night.
    • We were not able to get a hotel room because we had not booked in advance.
    • A: Had you ever visited the U.S. before your trip in 2006?
      B: Yes, I had been to the U.S. once before.

    USE 2 Duration Before Something in the Past (Non-Continuous Verbs)

    With Non-Continuous Verbs and some non-continuous uses of Mixed Verbs, we use the Past Perfect to show that something started in the past and continued up until another action in the past.

    Examples:

    • We had had that car for ten years before it broke down.
    • By the time Alex finished his studies, he had been in London for over eight years.
    • They felt bad about selling the house because they had owned it for more than forty years.

    Although the above use of Past Perfect is normally limited to Non-Continuous Verbs and non-continuous uses of Mixed Verbs, the words “live,” “work,” “teach,” and “study” are sometimes used in this way even though they are NOT Non-Continuous Verbs.

    IMPORTANT Specific Times with the Past Perfect

    Unlike with the Present Perfect, it is possible to use specific time words or phrases with the Past Perfect. Although this is possible, it is usually not necessary.

    Example:

    • She had visited her Japanese relatives once in 1993 before she moved in with them in 1996.

    MOREOVER

    If the Past Perfect action did occur at a specific time, the Simple Past can be used instead of the Past Perfect when “before” or “after” is used in the sentence. The words “before” and “after” actually tell you what happens first, so the Past Perfect is optional. For this reason, both sentences below are correct.

    Examples:

    • She had visited her Japanese relatives once in 1993 before she moved in with them in 1996.
    • She visited her Japanese relatives once in 1993 before she moved in with them in 1996.

    HOWEVER

    If the Past Perfect is not referring to an action at a specific time, Past Perfect is not optional. Compare the examples below. Here Past Perfect is referring to a lack of experience rather than an action at a specific time. For this reason, Simple Past cannot be used.

    Examples:

    • She never saw a bear before she moved to Alaska. Not Correct
    • She had never seen a bear before she moved to Alaska. Correct

    ADVERB PLACEMENT

    The examples below show the placement for grammar adverbs such as: always, only, never, ever, still, just, etc.

    Examples:

    • You had previously studied English before you moved to New York.
    • Had you previously studied English before you moved to New York?

    ACTIVE / PASSIVE

    Examples:

    • George had repaired many cars before he received his mechanic’s license. Active
    • Many cars had been repaired by George before he received his mechanic’s license.